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Photo: Vale's Archive
Photo: Vale's Archive

Vale’s places a priority on optimizing its safety  procedures, reinvigorating its pact with society, and providing increased transparency with regards to its dams. All information below refers to Brazil.

For these reasons, we are bringing together here our main initiatives for the management and monitoring of our dams. Explore this page and learn more about our processes and what has been done.

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Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management – GISTM.

The Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management (GISTM), an initiative of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), the Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) and the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM), was launched on August 5, 2020, becoming the first global standard in the mining sector and a global benchmark for tailings dam safety.

In October 2020, Vale's Board of Directors approved a new Dam Safety and Geotechnical Structures Policy, which includes GISTM as one of its references. Among other guidelines, the policy established that all components of our current Tailings and Dams Management System (TDMS) will be designed with elements of continuous improvement, using and applying the best available technologies and practices according to international institutions, including ICMM.

According to the public commitment, Vale will implement GISTM in its Tailings Storage Facilities (TSFs) on August 5, 2023, according to ICMM compliance schedule. The commitment also emphasizes that all TSFs operated by Vale with lower consequence classification will also be GISTM compliant by August 5, 2025.

Photographer: Videos Delivery

About dams and tailings

Some technical terms with regards to dams can be found throughout this page. We have developed a glossary that will help you to understand all of the information contained on this webpage.

Photo: Vale's Archive
Dams are geotechnical structures designed by engineers to contain solids, liquids, or a mixture of solids and liquids. Dams are generally used at Vale for containing sediment, tailings, or water.

Dams exist for various purposes. A water dam, for example, can help generate hydroelectric energy or increase water availability in a given location.

In Mining, dams are part of the ore production process that, after being extracted from the ground, undergoes the separation of impurities. What remains of this process is deposited in the dams, which are reservoirs for containing this material.

Tailings are the material that is left over after natural moisture processing of ore. Tailings are composed of iron ore, sand, and water, and are not toxic, corrosive, or flammable.

What are the possible methods for construction and raising that can be used with dams?

When a dam is built, a dyke is constructed in order to contain the iron ore tailings. This is the starter dam. As the dam continues to receive more tailings, new layers are built onto the starter dam - an operation that is referred to as raising.

There are different types of raising works that can be executed with dams. The main types of raising used by Vale are the downstream construction method (the conventional model) and the upstream construction method. In addition to these models, “Single stage” dams, which are not raised, are also used. Learn more about single stage dams below:

Photo: Vale's Archive

Learn more about single stage dams:

Single step

Downstream / conventional dam construction method

Upstream dam construction method

“Centerline” dam construction method


Since the dam collapse at Brumadinho, Vale has committed itself to eliminating dam structures that have been raised using the upstream construction method in line with recent dam legislation that determined that these types of structures are to be decommissioned.

Vale’s dams

Do you know how many dams Vale has?

In Brazil, Vale has 97 mining dams covered by the National Dam Safety Policy (PNSB, in Portuguese), including structures in operation, inactive and under construction. Of these, all those built in the upstream method, the same as the B1 dam in Brumadinho, are being eliminated by the decharacterization process.

And where are they?

82 are in Minas Gerais, 15 in Pará. We also have two other structures under implementation, the Torto dam, at Brucutu Mine (MG); and PDE2, at Manganês Azul Mine (PA).

* Data according to structures registered under the National Dam Safety Policy (PNSB, in Portuguese). Updated March/2023.

The elimination of upstream structures

The process to eliminate the dams upstream of Vale, the decharacterization, encompasses many stages, studies and care with the particularities of each dam. Our commitment is to eliminate 30 dams in Minas Gerais and Pará, 7 of which have already been delivered.

Understand which dams will be eliminated, the deadlines, locations and all the steps of this process:

Photo: Vale's Archive
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Dam Locations

We have created a map in which it is possible to see where our dams are located, view photos and documents from the Emergency Action Plan for Mining Dams (PAEBM), as well as maps of the flood and emergency procedures. The map can be viewed below:

Click under the states to see the dams concerned
Mapa do brasil



Select one of the dams below for more information




Select one of the dams below for more information



Canaã dos Carajás

Select one of the dams below for more information



Ourilândia do Norte

Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais


Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais


Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais

Belo Vale

Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais


Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais


Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais


Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais

Barão de Cocais

Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais

São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo

Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais

Santa Bárbara

Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais

Catas Altas

Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais


Select one of the dams below for more information


Minas Gerais

Rio Piracicaba

Select one of the dams below for more information

Fotógrafo: Ricardo Teles

Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management ("GISTM")

Vale has been reviewing and structuring its new tailings management policy day by day. This policy is based on market best practices and ensures that our dams are safe.


Everything that you need to know about safety and emergency procedures at Vale’s dams

Everything that you need to know about safety and emergency procedures at Vale’s dams

Our work focused on preventing risks. Therefore, we periodically request reviews that are carried out by independent external companies in order to receive updates on the physical and hydraulic safety conditions at our dams. These reviews adhere to legal requirements provided for under Brazilian standards and agreements executed with official government organs such as the Public Prosecutor’s Office (MP) and National Mining Agency (ANM). Watch the video below and learn more:
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This report is reviewed twice a year in adherence to the requirements of National Mining Agency (ANM in portuguese) Resolution 95/2022 from the Brazilian federal government, which allows us to monitor Stability Condition Declarations (DCEs) and better understand the conditions found in structures. This in turn allows us to provide increased quality in our processes for dam monitoring and safety reviews.

Another important change in the monitoring of tailings dams is the inclusion of the Engineer of Record. Previously, the standard was to contract engineering companies to perform biannual audits in order to complete reports based on available information and often a field inspection. EORs are now able to regularly monitor the structure of dams, which allows us to provide RISRs that contain more information and that are more assertive in their findings. Additionally, the EOR accompanies the implementation of recommendations for dams.

Vale’s goal is to achieve positive results for all structures that are assessed. For this reason, we are investing in technology and optimizing factors related to safety at Vale.

Performed by international companies, these audits are used to issue periodic reports that meet the requirements of the Public Prosecutor’s Office. Whenever actions for reinforcement are recommended, monitoring of dam stability is carried out by the same company that performed the audit for a period of a year after work is completed on the dam.

Vale has implemented the function of an Engineer of Record (EoR) as an additional step towards strengthening its governance. The Engineer of Record is responsible for performing regular safety inspections and issuing monthly technical reports with regards to the situations found at tailings dams. If any changes in safety conditions are found at a structure, a new Declaration of Stability (DCE) can be issued at any moment.

Vale’s dams are monitored 24 hours per day, seven days a week. High-tech instruments are used to provide precise data, including video cameras that use artificial intelligence, radar capable of detecting movements within a millimeter, inspection drones, piezometers (which measure water pressure), and geophones (sensors used to measure both induced and natural seismic waves).

Structure data is collected in real time and sent to Geotechnical Monitoring Centres (CMG) located in Itabira and Nova Lima in the state of Minas Gerais and Parauapebas in Pará. All information is continuously analyzed by Vale’s technicians. This allows us to verify structure conditions and take preventative and corrective measures quickly and safely.

See what the possible emergency levels are and what they represent:

An emergency situation is considered an adverse event that affects the dam's safety and may cause damage to its structural and operational integrity, to preserve life, health, property and the environment. The emergency situation must be assessed and classified according to the levels below

Photo: Vale's Archive

When an anomaly is detected that results in the maximum score for the state of conservation or for any other situation with a potential compromise in the safety of the structure, requiring special daily inspections.

Comunication to
the Brazilian National Mining Agency (ANM), ICMM - International Council on Mining and Metals, Environmental agencies and Civil Defense (national, state and city) and the responsible Mining Association & Regulations of the country that the Dam is located.

Immediate Actions
sign instability and intensify monitoring

Vale’s structures
Immedate actions: signaling instability and intensifying monitoring.
Dams: 5-Mutuca, 6, 7A, B, Campo Grande, Dicão Leste, Doutor, Maravilhas II, Norte/Laranjeiras, PDE 3, Peneirinha, Pontal, Vargem Grande.

When the result of the actions taken in the anomaly referred to in Level 1 is classified as “uncontrolled” or “not extinguished”, requiring new special inspections and interventions.

Comunication to
the ANM (Brazilian National Mining Agency), Environmental agencies, Civil Defense (national, state and city), Self-Rescue Zone (ZAS) and Secondary Safety Zone (ZSS), and the responsible Mining Association & Regulations of the country that the Dam is located.

Vale’s structures
Immedate actions: from that level, people in the ZAS are evacuated.
Dams: Dique de Pedra, Forquilha I, Forquilha II, Grupo, Xingu and B3/B4.

Situation of imminent or ongoing rupture.

Comunication to
the ANM (Brazilian National Mining Agency), Environmental agencies, Civil Defense (national, state and city), Self-Rescue Zone (ZAS) and Secondary Safety Zone (ZSS), the responsible Mining Association & Regulations of the country that the Dam is located.

Immediate Actions
Caring is extended to people who are in the Secondary Safety Zone (ZSS), through additional communication and educational measures.

Vale’s structures
ImmeDayte actions: Care is extended to people who are in the ZSS through additional educational measures.
Dams: Forquilha III and Sul Superior.

This video details the methods of construction and raising of mining dams, what the possible emergency levels of a dam are, and how this classification is made.

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Emergency Action Plan for Mining Dams (PAEBM)

Structures that present a high potential for social, environmental, and cultural damages must possess an Emergency Action Plan for Mining Dams (PAEBM).

Additionally, dams with an average DPA (Associated Potential Damage) are assessed and, if they are found to possess other characteristics included on the list of criteria, they must also have a PAEBM in place.

The Action Plan is prepared, developed, implemented, and managed in accordance with the the requirements provided for under legislation and protocols from municipalities and the municipal and state Civil Defense.

Photo: Vale's Archive

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The action plan established immediate actions that are to be taken in case of an emergency. Its main objective is to plan measures that minimize risks and damages. The PAEBM includes:

Flooding areas, in case the dam breaches;

Meeting points and escape route;

Information on monthly testing and geolocation of the sirens;

Arrival time at each structure;

How to proceed in case the sirens sound;

Important contact numbers in case of emergency.

Through technical studies that indicate the path of the tailings in a hypothetical dam rupture, called a flood spot, the PAEBM establishes escape routes and meeting points. Periodically, the ZAS community is oriented and trained on how to act in the event of an emergency.
The PAEBM indicates where and how many emergency alert sirens need to be installed in each location, covering all points in the spot area.
The sirens undergo tests periodicals, including silent ones. In monthly tests, the sound emitted by the sirens is an instrumental song. Thus, residents can differentiate when it is a test or when the alert is real.


Discover the types of simulations below:

The drills are exercises for preparing and evaluating the protocols and procedures proposed for real emergency situations.

Through them, plans, protocols, agreements and procedures are tested and validated, in addition to clarifying roles and responsibilities and identifying opportunities for improvement.

These actions involve several teams, regions and disciplines, with tactical and strategic functions, involved in the response to an emergency situation, such as command posts, monitoring centers and hierarchical scale in decision-making.

The community's participation in the simulations is fundamental for the correct understanding of how to behave in the event of a real emergency situation.

Photographer: Lucas Lenci

Fotógrafo: Ricardo Teles

Constant dialogue

All PAEBM actions are discussed with the competent bodies and with the community itself.

Professionals explain when there will be simulated emergencies and what measures need to be taken by residents.

Learn more about the Self-Rescue Zones (ZAS) and Secondary Safety Zones (ZSS):

All regions in which the competent authorities do not have sufficient time to intervene in emergency situations. A distance is therefore adopted that corresponds to the arrival of a flood wave which is equal to 30 minutes, or 10 km.

This is the region located after the 10 km or 30 minutes that constitutes the ZAS. There is sufficient time available in the ZSS for individuals to proceed with self-rescue and move towards the established meeting points. We wish to reiterate that, when a level 2 or 3 emergency is determined to be occurring at a dam, the ZAS is evacuated and those individuals in the ZSS are notified of the event.

Orientative Seminars

To ensure that mining is carried out safely, Vale carries out a range of preventative actions. Among these actions are: emergency signaling, simulations, siren tests, public meetings and training.

In addition, we are committed to transparency and to complying with the legislation (Resolution 51, of December 24, 2020, which determines the need to hold annual Orientation Seminars, with the participation of stakeholders, to deepen the PAEBM with these audiences), so we maintain a routine dialogue with the community to talk about dam safety and risk prevention.

In case of doubt, contact us by phone 0800 039 6010.


Safety innovations for operations and communities

Vale understands the importance of technology and is therefore investing in new dam monitoring technologies. This is how we are able to provide agility and safety with our initiatives.

Hover the mouse to learn more about these technologies.

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You can also explore the main initiatives that are being implemented with regards to reparation and development in areas impacted by the B1 dam collapse in Brumadinho.

Vale is actively seeking out practices that provide a balance with regards to the sustainability of its operations. Initiatives, plans, and targets can all be found at the ESG webpage.

Photo: Vale's Archive

Frequently Asked Questions regarding our dams

Vale monitors its dams at its Geotechnical Monitoring Centre 24 hours per day, 7 days a week. The CMG integrates data from instruments located at more than 100 structures, using various sensors and remote monitoring systems that provide real time transmission. In addition, technicians periodically inspect dam structures. We also have a variety of equipment installed at dams that measure different aspects of the structure. Internal and external audits are also performed in which the work of technicians is verified by other individuals both within and outside Vale.

There are also sirens that integrate dam alert systems. In addition to these sirens, we also have a redundant operational system in place, which is part of dam management processes and requires Vale to have infrastructure prepared to support systems in cases of a failure. For example, if an operator fails to engage the siren, it engages automatically through means of an automated system. We have redundant operational phases in place in electrical, telecommunications, network, power, and other systems.

At Vale, we are focused on developing our Tailings Dam Management System in accordance with rigorous international practices and legal requirements. We have also created channels that allow for open and transparent dialogue with members of society, regulatory bodies, and government agencies in order to reinforce safety at our operations.

Create a culture of prevention within the communities in which we operate, identifying a variety of situations and events that may put the integrity of dam structures at risk. PAEBM also establishes resources and strategies for avoiding or minimizing social, environmental, and economic impacts in a dam collapse scenario.

Highlighted measures taken to ensure that PAEBM is correctly executed include:

  • Emergency signaling: in partnership with municipal Civil Defense, signage displaying evacuation routes and meeting points have been installed in Self-Rescue Zones (ZAS) located within municipalities. Evacuation routes are routes that must be followed by individuals in the event of an emergency. Meeting points are locations in which individuals must gather when it is necessary to evacuate an area.
  • Hypothetical dam break simulations provide communities and agents located in Self-Rescue Zones (ZAS) with knowledge of the actions that are to be taken in case of an emergency and training in how to proceed in case of a real-life emergency situation. These simulations are carried out in partnership with municipal and state civil defense and other emergency response organs.
  • Siren tests are part of legal requirements that ensure the proper function of emergency alert systems, verifying that sirens are functioning correctly and meet all necessary requirements. The local population is notified of siren tests in advance and tests are carried out in partnership with municipal Civil Defense. Commissioning consists of the initial test verifying that the emergency alert system is functioning once it has been implemented. After this initial stage, siren tests are carried out monthly at pre-determined dates and times in accordance with schedules that are established together with competent bodies.
  • Training: in addition to simulations held in the community, we also carry out internal training with Vale and third-party employees in order to ensure an appropriate rapid response from all areas involved in an emergency situation.
  • Risk communication: Vale maintains an informative communication system with communities that are located near its operations. The themes that are touched upon in the training include risk scenarios, evacuation routes, meeting points, signage, sirens, and simulations.

All of Vale’s dams in Brazil comply with legal requirements provided for under Federal Law 12.334, DNPM Ordinance 70.389, and resolution 51 from the National Mining Agency, as well as Federal Law 14.066 of 2020.

In a real emergency situation, you will hear the siren sound intermittently followed by the following message: “Attention! Attention! This is an emergency. This is a real emergency situation involving a dam collapse. Immediately exit your residences and follow the evacuation route to the meeting point and await further instructions

A paragraph is a self-contained unit of a discourse in writing dealing with a particular point or idea. Paragraphs are usually an expected part of formal writing, used to organize longer prose.

The technical content on this webpage has been simplified to facilitate the comprehension of the general public.